What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body’s ability to produce or respond to insulin is impaired. This leads to elevated levels of glucose in the blood.
Types of Diabetes:
There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Both the types diabetes affect the way our body regulates the blood sugar or glucose, which is the main source of energy.
Here are the certain factors about Diabetes type 1 and type 2
Type 1 Diabetes
It is characterized by autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, by Insulinitis mediated by antibodies against the beta cells of the islets, and by complete insulinopenia, which results in a mandatory need for exogenous insulin.
It represents between 5-10% of diabetes cases and its maximum incidence occurs between 10-15 years.
The factors associated with its appearance are: environmental, genetic and autoimmune. According to this theory, a series of environmental factors such as viruses (mumps, rubella) and chemical substances, induce an attack on the pancreatic beta cells by the immune system. Due to a genetic predisposition, some people are more sensitive to environmental factors. Thus we know that in twins if one suffers from the disease, the risk of the sibling rises 25-50%. If the father or mother suffers from diabetes, the risk is also increased, greater if the affected is the father and also depends on the age of the mother at the time of delivery without knowing the exact reason.
patients with type 1 diabetes, 85% have antibodies against circulating islet cells, anti-insulin antibodies, especially against glutamic acid decarboxylase inside beta cells.
We use C-peptide determination to check if the patient is capable of secreting endogenous insulin. If there is no C-peptide, a total insufficiency of beta cells has been produced, diagnosing type 1 diabetes with more than 90% of beta cells destroyed forever, with a variable rate of destruction in infants and children faster than in adults.
We also know the association of type 1 diabetes with other autoimmune diseases: Hashimoto’s thioroiditis, celiac disease, Addison’s disease, Graves’ disease, pernicious anemia …
Its presentation is abrupt and acute, often with a picture of ketoacidosis.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1 and accounts for up to 90% or more of all diabetes cases.
People who are at high risk for type 2 diabetes are:
– Those who are obese (more than 20% above their ideal body weight)
– They have a family member with diabetes.
They belong to an ethnic group at risk.
– They have been diagnosed with gestational diabetes or have given birth to a newborn weighing more than 4.1 kg.
– Have a high blood pressure 140/90 mmHg or higher.
– They have a low HDL (good cholesterol) concentration of less than 35 mg / dl.
– They have a high triglyceride concentration, greater than 250.
– Sedentary life.
– They consume large amounts of alcohol.
– They had altered fasting glucose values (100-125) or altered glucose in the stress test (less than 199 at 2 hours).
– Advanced age. More than 40% of diabetic patients are 65 years or older.
– The use of concomitant medications such as diuretics and corticosteroids increase the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes type1 and type 2 has affects on the human body
Having a slower onset (sometimes discovered over several years) it is considered to be milder diabetes that is often controlled with diet, physical exercise, and oral medications. However, patients with type 2 diabetes are at the same risk of serious complications as patients with type 1 diabetes.