General description

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common hormonal disorder among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excessive levels of male hormones (androgens). The ovaries can develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and do not release eggs regularly.

The exact (PCOS) Polycystic ovary syndrome is unknown. Early diagnosis and treatment along with weight loss can reduce the risk of long-term complications, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

what is PCOS?

Symptoms of (PCOS) Polycystic ovary syndrome

The signs and symptoms of PCOS usually develop around the time of the first menstruation, during puberty. In some cases, PCOS develops later, for example, in response to significant weight gain.

The signs and symptoms of PCOS vary. The PCOS can be diagnosed by experiencing any of these two signs.

Irregular menstrual periods:

Infrequent, irregular, or prolonged menstrual periods are the most common sign of PCOS . For example, you could have fewer than nine menstrual periods a year, more than 35 days between periods, and menorrhagia (abnormally heavy periods).

Androgen excess:

Having elevated levels of male hormones can cause physical signs, such as excess facial and body hair (hirsutism) and sometimes severe acne and male pattern baldness.

Polycystic ovaries: Your ovaries may become enlarged and contain follicles around the eggs. As a result, the ovaries may stop working normally.

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The signs and symptoms of PCOS are usually more serious if you are obese.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you have concerns about your menstrual periods, if you experience infertility, or if you have signs of excess androgen, such as worsening hirsutism, acne, and male pattern baldness.

Causes:

The exact cause of (PCOS) Polycystic ovary syndrome is unknown . Factors that may influence include the following:

Excess Insulin

Insulin is the hormone produced in the pancreas that allows cells to use sugar, the body’s main energy supply. If cells become resistant to the action of insulin, glucose levels in the blood may rise and your body may produce more insulin. Too much insulin can increase androgen production causing difficulties with ovulation.

PCOS

Little inflammation

This term is used to describe the production of substances by white blood cells to fight infection. Research has shown that women with PCOS have a low-grade type of inflammation that stimulates the PCOS ovaries to produce androgens, which can lead to heart and blood vessel problems.

Inheritance

Research suggests that certain genes could have linked to PCOS .
Androgen excess. The ovaries produce abnormally high levels of androgens, resulting in hirsutism and acne.

 Excess Androgen

The ovaries produce abnormally high levels of androgens, resulting in hirsutism and acne.

Complications

Complications of PCOS include the following:

Infertility

Gestational diabetes or high blood pressure caused by pregnancy
Miscarriage or premature birth Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis – a severe liver inflammation caused by the accumulation of fat in the liver
Metabolic syndrome – a group of conditions including high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose levels, and abnormal levels of cholesterol or triglycerides that significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes
Sleep apnea
Depression, anxiety, and eating disorders
Abnormal uterine bleeding
Cancer of the uterine lining (endometrial cancer)

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The metabolic abnormalities associated with PCOS, such as β-cell. This defect is independent of but substantially worsened by obesity.

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